Once he has perfected a nuclear-tipped intercontinental missile, he may well demand the pullout of US troops from South Korea and an end to the Seoul-Washington alliance. Beijing also fears that Japan and/or South Korea could exploit the "threat" posed by North Korea to justify building their own nuclear arsenals.
Before Monday's vote, the Security Council already had imposed various sanctions on North Korea, including on its exports of coal, iron ore and seafood. "But to achieve such a solution, the pressure on North Korea must be increased".
North Korea was condemned globally for its latest nuclear test on September 3, which it said was of an advanced hydrogen bomb. In addition, the administration must move immediately to nominate an ambassador to South Korea, assistant secretary of State for East Asian and the Pacific, and assistant secretary of Defense for Asia.
While there is some global scepticism about whether sanctions will help, many scholars say they are a vital part of the mix. The US does not have the same historical baggage against the Chinese military taking such actions in North Korea.
Earlier, the U.S. vowed to apply further pressure if North Korea kept its "dangerous path".
Although this amounts to a reduction of more than 55 percent in refined petroleum products, it falls far short of the complete cutoff originally sought by the US after last weekend's test of what the regime described as a ballistic missile-mountable hydrogen bomb. And there's also a ban on new work permits for North Korean workers.
UN Security Council on Tuesday unanimously voted to step up sanctions on North Korea, with its profitable textile exports now banned and fuel supplies capped, prompting traditionally defiant threat of retaliation against the U.S.
The ambassador, Kim Hak-Chol, has five days to leave Peru, the foreign affairs ministry said in a statement.
China and Russian Federation, both veto-holding powers on the 15-member Security Council, had voiced opposition to harsher measures and threatened to block the vote if the ban on oil remained, diplomats said. Textiles are North Korea's second-largest exports worth more than 700 million dollar a year. "If it proves it can live in peace, the world will live in peace with it", she told the UN Security Council after the adoption of new sanctions.
David von Hippel, an energy expert with the Nautilus Institute think-tank who has done extensive research on North Korea, said he doubts that oil sanctions will hit the regime very hard.
Beijing may accept the suggestion that the People's Liberation Army march across China's border with North Korea to create a safety zone in order to build shelters for refugees and stem a massive refugee inflow into China's northeast. Stage three involves surgical strikes and special forces operations against the North Korean leadership and critical strategic assets.
United Nations member states will be required not to renew the contracts of an estimated 93,000 North Korean guest workers, whose wages bring in an estimated $500 million a year to North Korea.
The final agreement was reached after negotiations between the U.S. and China, the North's ally and major trading partner.
North Korea carefully stages propaganda meet-and-greets for Kim in the repressed kingdom.
Regardless of how strong the measures are, their effectiveness remains in the hands of the United Nations member states that implement them.
While analysts do not expect North Korea to have a reliable intercontinental ballistic missile until next year at the earliest, NATO's European allies could become a target as a way of threatening their closest partner, the United States, a third NATO diplomat said, stressing that was only speculation.