The job losses will be direct and indirect, as price hikes will hit American companies that buy worldwide steel to make screws, wires, and machines, Laura M. Baughman, president of the Trade Partnership, said Friday during a Heritage Foundation event.
Some form of retaliation appears likely from China, with which the United States traded more goods than any other country previous year.
"We are an ally, not a threat", European Commission Vice President Jyrki Katainen said. Given Trump's predilections and China's leverage, however, the conflict to come may look very different than most are imagining.
During Trump's trip, the other 11 signatories of the original trade deal, including Japan, Australia, Canada and Mexico, agreed to move forward without the U.S. This is a problem for the U.S. because it means that these countries will grant preferential market access to one another, making it harder for American companies to compete in their markets.
"It's really an assault on our country", he blasted, announcing the tariffs on the metals used in everything from cars to construction, roads to railways. Though Trump doubtless sees taunting Canada on NAFTA and playing to his political base as furthering his agenda, these are but freebies, sideshows to the main event. He added: "We will be looking to see how we can maximise the UK's case for exemption under these particular circumstances".
"It's inconceivable that Canada - which is a full partner of the USA in NORAD [and] in North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, is by U.S. law a part of the defence industrial base - it's inconceivable that we could represent a threat", she said.
The amount is a drop in the bucket when compared with the record $375.2 billion trade deficit the U.S. racked up with China past year.
The country with which the United States has the biggest trade deficit is China.
Ms Malmstrom told reporters the European Union was ready to complain to the World Trade Organisation, and retaliate within 90 days.
"Any business or any manufacturer that utilizes steel or aluminum is potentially going to be harmed by this", said Johnson.
And with midterm elections looming, the extraordinary backlash from the president's Republican Party sets up a showdown between the chief executive and his own majority lawmakers.
The National Corn Growers Association echoed Roberts in saying the tariffs could increase the price of farm equipment at home besides risking retaliation against U.S exports.
Nations around the globe that were not excluded from the tariffs reacted with dismay. "That number has decreased significantly over the past five to six years because of anti-dumping and countervailing duties that have all but cut off a lot of imports of steel from China".
Canada can breathe easier, for now: It's getting relief from US tariffs for an undetermined period, as one of only two countries receiving a provisional exemption from the steel and aluminum penalties set to clobber the rest of the world. It reflects profound alarm over America's preparedness in confronting a China that through government subsidies has acquired a stranglehold over the global steel industry: China now accounts for half of the world's entire steel production. Major producer Brazil immediately vowed to take "all necessary steps" in order to "protect its rights and interests" in response to the USA move.
"A skilled, trained workforce in steel is a crucial element of America's national security and must be protected", Trump said. During the Second World War, when the US dominated the world's steel production, rationing was nevertheless needed - the public was even exhorted to donate their automobile bumpers to the war effort as scrap steel.
In such a scenario, the share prices of individual companies would be affected much more severely than the pace of growth in either the Chinese or United States economy: This is a micro, rather than macro threat.
Canada and the USA both export and import about the same amount of steel. Paik Un-gyu, the country's minister of trade, industry and energy, said in a meeting Friday with senior officials from Korean steelmakers.
But she warned that if the issue can't be resolved bilaterally or through the World Trade Organization, then "we will have to protect our industry with rebalancing measures".
President Donald Trump's proposed tariff on imported steel and aluminum, at 25% and 10%, is much more than a shot across the bow.