European governments said they will wait for the results of the OPCW investigation and for more solid forensic evidence before taking the next step on the matter. Rebel fighters have started leaving the town under a surrender deal.
"If you took the decision to carry out an illegal military adventure - and we do hope that you will come to your senses - well then you will have to bare responsibility for it", said Nebenzia.
Fourteen people, including Iranians, were reported killed in the missile attack.
Israel has not commented on the raid so far. Under a 2013 agreement for which Russian Federation was a guarantor, Syria was to have eliminated all its chemical weapons, but it has used chlorine and perhaps other chemicals since then.
What has been the reaction on Douma?
He added of Russian President Vladimir Putin, "everybody's going to pay a price - he will, everybody will".
After Russia warned the United States against military strikes in Syria, President Donald Trump says missiles "will be coming". Syrian activists, rescuers and medics said the attack in Douma murdered at least forty people, with families discovered suffocated in their properties as well as shelters.More news: Trump Accuses Putin, Russia, Iran of Enabling Atrocities in Syria
If confirmed, the use of such weapons would be a violation of global law, Mr Guterres said in a statement.
The statement by the Foreign Ministry in Damascus comes as a war of words is raging between Washington and Moscow over last weekend's suspected chemical attack on a rebel-held town near the Syrian capital.
He warned that "any Russia-U.S. military clash will expand beyond a local conflict and a confrontation will be inevitable".
What is happening in Douma? Washington's top United Nations envoy said "the world must see justice done" after dozens of people were killed in Douma. We should work with the French.
However, it has not been possible to verify independently what actually happened, or the number of dead. The Pentagon said it was not conducting military operations in the area.
Meanwhile, on the ground, thousands of militants and their families arrived in rebel-held northwestern Syria after surrendering Douma to government forces.
A Lebanese politician with close links to the Syrian government confirmed that precautionary measures were being taken throughout Syria.
Russian Federation has always been anxious that Trump is planning further military action against the Syrian government.
On Feb. 24, the UN Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 2401 which called for a month-long cease-fire in Syria, especially in Eastern Ghouta to allow the delivery of humanitarian aid. Its heaviest air strike on Syria, in February this year, included targeting the T4 air base.
The airstrikes targeted Syrian air defenses and resulted in an Israeli jet being downed during the mission, after an Iranian drone was launched into Israeli territory, according to Israeli Air Force Brig.